National Curriculum 2014 (UK)

Mathematics

Key Stage 1

Year 1

Number

Number & Place Value
Pupils practise counting (1, 2, 3...), ordering (for example, first, second, third...), and to indicate a quantity (for example, 3 apples, 2 centimetres), including solving simple concrete problems, until they are fluent. Pupils begin to recognise place value in numbers beyond 20 by reading, writing, counting and comparing numbers up to 100, supported by objects and pictorial representations. They practise counting as reciting numbers and counting as enumerating objects, and counting in twos, fives and tens from different multiples to develop their recognition of patterns in the number system (for example, odd and even numbers), including varied and frequent practice through increasingly complex questions. They recognise and create repeating patterns with objects and with shapes.

Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
Play Activities 183Examples

Count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
Examples

Given a number, identify one more and one less
Examples

Identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least
Examples

Read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words
Examples

Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number

Addition & Subtraction
Pupils memorise and reason with number bonds to 10 and 20 in several forms (for example, 9 + 7 = 16; 16  7 = 9; 7 = 16  9). They should realise the effect of adding or subtracting zero. This establishes addition and subtraction as related operations. Pupils combine and increase numbers, counting forwards and backwards. They discuss and solve problems in familiar practical contexts, including using quantities. Problems should include the terms: put together, add, altogether, total, take away, distance between, difference between, more than and less than, so that pupils develop the concept of addition and subtraction and are enabled to use these operations flexibly.

Read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction () and equals (=) signs
Examples

Represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
Examples

Add and subtract onedigit and twodigit numbers to 20, including zero
Play Activities 194Examples

Solve onestep problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ?  9
Play Activities 190Examples

Read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction () and equals (=) signs

Multiplication & Division
Through grouping and sharing small quantities, pupils begin to understand: multiplication and division; doubling numbers and quantities; and finding simple fractions of objects, numbers and quantities. They make connections between arrays, number patterns, and counting in twos, fives and tens.

Fractions
Pupils are taught half and quarter as 'fractions of' discrete and continuous quantities by solving problems using shapes, objects and quantities. For example, they could recognise and find half a length, quantity, set of objects or shape. Pupils connect halves and quarters to the equal sharing and grouping of sets of objects and to measures, as well as recognising and combining halves and quarters as parts of a whole

Number & Place Value

Measurement
The pairs of terms: mass and weight, volume and capacity, are used interchangeably at this stage. Pupils move from using and comparing different types of quantities and measures using nonstandard units, including discrete (for example, counting) and continuous (for example, liquid) measurement, to using manageable common standard units. In order to become familiar with standard measures, pupils begin to use measuring tools such as a ruler, weighing scales and containers. Pupils use the language of time, including telling the time throughout the day, first using o'clock and then half past.

Compare, describe and solve practical problems for:

Lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]
Examples

Mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than]
Examples

Capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half, half full, quarter]
Examples

Time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]
Examples

Lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]

Sequence events in chronological order using language [for example, before and after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening]
Examples

Recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
Examples

Tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
Examples

Compare, describe and solve practical problems for:

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils handle common 2D and 3D shapes, naming these and related everyday objects fluently. They recognise these shapes in different orientations and sizes, and know that rectangles, triangles, cuboids and pyramids are not always similar to each other.Examples

Position & Direction
Pupils use the language of position, direction and motion, including: left and right, top, middle and bottom, on top of, in front of, above, between, around, near, close and far, up and down, forwards and backwards, inside and outside. Pupils make whole, half, quarter and threequarter turns in both directions and connect turning clockwise with movement on a clock faceExamples

Properties of Shapes

Number

Year 2

Number

Number & Place Value
Using materials and a range of representations, pupils practise counting, reading, writing and comparing numbers to at least 100 and solving a variety of related problems to develop fluency. They count in multiples of three to support their later understanding of a third. As they become more confident with numbers up to 100, pupils are introduced to larger numbers to develop further their recognition of patterns within the number system and represent them in different ways, including spatial representations. Pupils should partition numbers in different ways (for example, 23 = 20 + 3 and 23 = 10 + 13) to support subtraction. They become fluent and apply their knowledge of numbers to reason with, discuss and solve problems that emphasise the value of each digit in twodigit numbers. They begin to understand zero as a place holder.

Count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
Examples

Recognise the place value of each digit in a twodigit number (tens, ones)
Examples

Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations, including the number line
Examples

Compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
Examples

Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
Examples

Use place value and number facts to solve problems
Examples

Count in steps of 2, 3, and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward

Addition & Subtraction
Pupils extend their understanding of the language of addition and subtraction to include sum and difference. Pupils practise addition and subtraction to 20 to become increasingly fluent in deriving facts such as using 3 + 7 = 10; 10  7 = 3 and 7 = 10  3 to calculate 30 + 70 = 100; 100  70 = 30 and 70 = 100  30. They check their calculations, including by adding to check subtraction and adding numbers in a different order to check addition (for example, 5 + 2 + 1 = 1 + 5 + 2 = 1 + 2 + 5). This establishes commutativity and associativity of addition. Recording addition and subtraction in columns supports place value and prepares for formal written methods with larger numbers.
 Solve problems with addition and subtraction:

Recall and use addition and subtraction facts to 20 fluently, and derive and use related facts up to 100
Examples

Add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:

A twodigit number and ones
Play Activities 166Examples

A twodigit number and tens
Examples

Two twodigit numbers
Examples

Adding three onedigit numbers
Examples

A twodigit number and ones

Show that addition of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and subtraction of one number from another cannot
Examples

Recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems
Play Activities 222Examples

Multiplication & Division
Pupils use a variety of language to describe multiplication and division. Pupils are introduced to the multiplication tables. They practise to become fluent in the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables and connect them to each other. They connect the 10 multiplication table to place value, and the 5 multiplication table to the divisions on the clock face. They begin to use other multiplication tables and recall multiplication facts, including using related division facts to perform written and mental calculations. Pupils work with a range of materials and contexts in which multiplication and division relate to grouping and sharing discrete and continuous quantities, to arrays and to repeated addition. They begin to relate these to fractions and measures (for example, 40 Ã· 2 = 20, 20 is a half of 40). They use commutativity and inverse relations to develop multiplicative reasoning (for example, 4 x 5 = 20 and 20 Ã· 5 = 4).

Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
Examples

Show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
Examples

Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts
Examples

Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers

Fractions
Pupils use fractions as 'fractions of' discrete and continuous quantities by solving problems using shapes, objects and quantities. They connect unit fractions to equal sharing and grouping, to numbers when they can be calculated, and to measures, finding fractions of lengths, quantities, sets of objects or shapes. They meet 3/4 as the first example of a nonunit fraction. Pupils should count in fractions up to 10, starting from any number and using the 1/2 and 2/4 equivalence on the number line (for example, 1 1/4, 1 2/4 (or 1 1/2), 1 3/4, 2). This reinforces the concept of fractions as numbers and that they can add up to more than one.

Number & Place Value

Measurement
Pupils use standard units of measurement with increasing accuracy, using their knowledge of the number system. They use the appropriate language and record using standard abbreviations. Comparing measures includes simple multiples such as 'half as high'; 'twice as wide'. They become fluent in telling the time on analogue clocks and recording it. Pupils become fluent in counting and recognising coins. They read and say amounts of money confidently and use the symbols Â£ and p accurately, recording pounds and pence separately.

Choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (degreesC); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
Examples

Compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using >, < and =
Examples

Solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
Examples

Compare and sequence intervals of time
Examples

Tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times
Examples

Choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length/height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg/g); temperature (degreesC); capacity (litres/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils handle and name a wide variety of common 2D and 3D shapes including: quadrilaterals and polygons, and cuboids, prisms and cones, and identify the properties of each shape (for example, number of sides, number of faces). Pupils identify, compare and sort shapes on the basis of their properties and use vocabulary precisely, such as sides, edges, vertices and faces. Pupils read and write names for shapes that are appropriate for their word reading and spelling. Pupils draw lines and shapes using a straight edge.

Identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line
Examples

Identify and describe the properties of 3D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces
Examples

Identify 2D shapes on the surface of 3D shapes [for example, a circle on a cylinder and a triangle on a pyramid]
Examples

Compare and sort common 2D and 3D shapes and everyday objects
Examples

Identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line

Position & Direction
Pupils should work with patterns of shapes, including those in different orientations. Pupils use the concept and language of angles to describe 'turn' by applying rotations, including in practical contexts (for example, pupils themselves moving in turns, giving instructions to other pupils to do so, and programming robots using instructions given in right angles)

Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
Examples

Use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and threequarter turns (clockwise and anticlockw
Play Activities 106Examples

Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences

Properties of Shapes

Statistics
Pupils record, interpret, collate, organise and compare information (for example, using manytoone correspondence in pictograms with simple ratios 2, 5, 10)

Interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables
Examples

Ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity
Examples

Ask and answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data
Examples

Interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables

Number

Year 1

Lower Key Stage 2

Year 3

Number

Number & Place Value
Pupils now use multiples of 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 50 and 100. They use larger numbers to at least 1000, applying partitioning related to place value using varied and increasingly complex problems, building on work in year 2 (for example, 146 = 100 + 40 and 6, 146 = 130 + 16). Using a variety of representations, including those related to measure, pupils continue to count in ones, tens and hundreds, so that they become fluent in the order and place value of numbers to 1000

Count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
Examples

Recognise the place value of each digit in a threedigit number (hundreds, tens, ones)
Examples

Compare and order numbers up to 1000
Examples

Read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and in words
Examples

Solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas
Examples

Count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number

Addition & Subtraction
Pupils practise solving varied addition and subtraction questions. For mental calculations with twodigit numbers, the answers could exceed 100. Pupils use their understanding of place value and partitioning, and practise using columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers up to three digits to become fluent (see Mathematics Appendix 1)

Add and subtract numbers mentally, including:

A threedigit number and ones
Examples

A threedigit number and tens
Examples

A threedigit number and hundreds
Examples

A threedigit number and ones

Add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
Play Activities 133Examples

Estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
Examples

Solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction
Play Activities 330Examples

Add and subtract numbers mentally, including:

Multiplication & Division
Pupils continue to practise their mental recall of multiplication tables when they are calculating mathematical statements in order to improve fluency. Through doubling, they connect the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables. Pupils develop efficient mental methods, for example, using commutativity and associativity (for example, 4 x 12 x 5 = 4 x 5 x 12 = 20 x 12 = 240) and multiplication and division facts (for example, using 3 x 2 = 6, 6 Ã· 3 = 2 and 2 = 6 Ã· 3) to derive related facts (for example, 30 x 2 = 60, 60 Ã· 3 = 20 and 20 = 60 Ã· 3). Pupils develop reliable written methods for multiplication and division, starting with calculations of twodigit numbers by onedigit numbers and progressing to the formal written methods of short multiplication and division. Pupils solve simple problems in contexts, deciding which of the four operations to use and why. These include measuring and scaling contexts, (for example, four times as high, eight times as long etc.) and correspondence problems in which m objects are connected to n objects (for example, 3 hats and 4 coats, how many different outfits?; 12 sweets shared equally between 4 children; 4 cakes shared equally between 8 children).

Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
Examples

Write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for twodigit numbers times onedigit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
Examples

Solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division, including positive integer scaling problems and correspondence problems in which n objects are connected to m objects
Play Activities 119Examples

Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables

Fractions
Pupils connect tenths to place value, decimal measures and to division by 10. They begin to understand unit and nonunit fractions as numbers on the number line, and deduce relations between them, such as size and equivalence. They should go beyond the [0, 1] interval, including relating this to measure. Pupils understand the relation between unit fractions as operators (fractions of), and division by integers. They continue to recognise fractions in the context of parts of a whole, numbers, measurements, a shape, and unit fractions as a division of a quantity. Pupils practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator through a variety of increasingly complex problems to improve fluency.

Count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing onedigit numbers or quantities by 10
Examples

Recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and nonunit fractions with small denominators
Examples

Recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
Examples

Count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing onedigit numbers or quantities by 10

Number & Place Value

Measurement
Pupils continue to measure using the appropriate tools and units, progressing to using a wider range of measures, including comparing and using mixed units (for example, 1 kg and 200g) and simple equivalents of mixed units (for example, 5m = 500cm). The comparison of measures includes simple scaling by integers (for example, a given quantity or measure is twice as long or five times as high) and this connects to multiplication. Pupils continue to become fluent in recognising the value of coins, by adding and subtracting amounts, including mixed units, and giving change using manageable amounts. They record Â£ and p separately. The decimal recording of money is introduced formally in year 4. Pupils use both analogue and digital 12hour clocks and record their times. In this way they become fluent in and prepared for using digital 24hour clocks in year 4.

Measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
Examples

Measure the perimeter of simple 2D shapes
Examples

Add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both Â£ and p in practical contexts
Examples

Tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12hour and 24hour clocks
Examples

Estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as o'clock, a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon, noon and midnight
Examples

Know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year
Examples

Measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils' knowledge of the properties of shapes is extended at this stage to symmetrical and nonsymmetrical polygons and polyhedra. Pupils extend their use of the properties of shapes. They should be able to describe the properties of 2D and 3D shapes using accurate language, including lengths of lines and acute and obtuse for angles greater or lesser than a right angle. Pupils connect decimals and rounding to drawing and measuring straight lines in centimetres, in a variety of contexts.

Draw 2D shapes and make 3D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3D shapes in different orientations and describe them
Examples

Recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn
Examples

Identify right angles, recognise that two right angles make a halfturn, three make three quarters of a turn and four a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
Examples

Identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines
Examples

Draw 2D shapes and make 3D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3D shapes in different orientations and describe them

Properties of Shapes

Statistics
Pupils understand and use simple scales (for example, 2, 5, 10 units per cm) in pictograms and bar charts with increasing accuracy. They continue to interpret data presented in many contexts.

Number

Year 4

Number

Number & Place Value
Using a variety of representations, including measures, pupils become fluent in the order and place value of numbers beyond 1000, including counting in tens and hundreds, and maintaining fluency in other multiples through varied and frequent practice. They begin to extend their knowledge of the number system to include the decimal numbers and fractions that they have met so far. They connect estimation and rounding numbers to the use of measuring instruments. Roman numerals should be put in their historical context so pupils understand that there have been different ways to write whole numbers and that the important concepts of zero and place value were introduced over a period of time.

Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
Examples

Find 1000 more or less than a given number
Examples

Recognise the place value of each digit in a fourdigit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)
Examples

Order and compare numbers beyond 1000
Examples

Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
Examples

Round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
Examples

Solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
Examples

Count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000

Addition & Subtraction
Pupils continue to practise both mental methods and columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (see Mathematics Appendix 1).

Add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
Play Activities 391Examples

Estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
Examples

Solve addition and subtraction twostep problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why
Examples

Add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate

Multiplication & Division
Pupils continue to practise recalling and using multiplication tables and related division facts to aid fluency. Pupils practise mental methods and extend this to threedigit numbers to derive facts, (for example 600 Ã· 3 = 200 can be derived from 2 x 3 = 6). Pupils practise to become fluent in the formal written method of short multiplication and short division with exact answers (see Mathematics Appendix 1). Pupils write statements about the equality of expressions (for example, use the distributive law 39 x 7 = 30 x 7 + 9 x 7 and associative law (2 x 3) x 4 = 2 x (3 x 4)). They combine their knowledge of number facts and rules of arithmetic to solve mental and written calculations for example, 2 x 6 x 5 = 10 x 6 = 60. Pupils solve twostep problems in contexts, choosing the appropriate operation, working with increasingly harder numbers. This should include correspondence questions such as the numbers of choices of a meal on a menu, or three cakes shared equally between 10 children.

Recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 x 12
Examples

Use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
Examples

Recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
Examples

Multiply twodigit and threedigit numbers by a onedigit number using formal written layout
Examples

Solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects
Examples

Recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 x 12

Fractions (Including Decimals)
Pupils should connect hundredths to tenths and place value and decimal measure. They extend the use of the number line to connect fractions, numbers and measures. Pupils understand the relation between nonunit fractions and multiplication and division of quantities, with particular emphasis on tenths and hundredths. Pupils make connections between fractions of a length, of a shape and as a representation of one whole or set of quantities. Pupils use factors and multiples to recognise equivalent fractions and simplify where appropriate (for example, 6/9 = 2/3 or 1/4 = 2/8). Pupils continue to practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator, to become fluent through a variety of increasingly complex problems beyond one whole. Pupils are taught throughout that decimals and fractions are different ways of expressing numbers and proportions. Pupils' understanding of the number system and decimal place value is extended at this stage to tenths and then hundredths. This includes relating the decimal notation to division of whole number by 10 and later 100. They practise counting using simple fractions and decimals, both forwards and backwards. Pupils learn decimal notation and the language associated with it, including in the context of measurements. They make comparisons and order decimal amounts and quantities that are expressed to the same number of decimal places. They should be able to represent numbers with one or two decimal places in several ways, such as on number lines.

Recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
Examples

Count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten
Examples

Solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including nonunit fractions where the answer is a whole number
Examples

Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
Examples

Recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
Examples

Find the effect of dividing a one or twodigit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
Examples

Round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
Examples

Compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places
Examples

Solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places
Examples

Recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions

Number & Place Value

Measurement
Pupils build on their understanding of place value and decimal notation to record metric measures, including money. They use multiplication to convert from larger to smaller units. Perimeter can be expressed algebraically as 2(a + b) where a and b are the dimensions in the same unit. They relate area to arrays and multiplication.

Convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]
Examples

Measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
Examples

Find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
Examples

Estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence
Play Activities 125Examples

Read, write and convert time between analogue and digital 12 and 24hour clocks
Examples

Solve problems involving converting from hours to minutes; minutes to seconds; years to months; weeks to days
Examples

Convert between different units of measure [for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute]

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils continue to classify shapes using geometrical properties, extending to classifying different triangles (for example, isosceles, equilateral, scalene) and quadrilaterals (for example, parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium). Pupils compare and order angles in preparation for using a protractor and compare lengths and angles to decide if a polygon is regular or irregular. Pupils draw symmetric patterns using a variety of media to become familiar with different orientations of lines of symmetry; and recognise line symmetry in a variety of diagrams, including where the line of symmetry does not dissect the original shape

Compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
Examples

Identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size
Examples

Identify lines of symmetry in 2D shapes presented in different orientations
Examples

Complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry
Examples

Compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes

Position & Direction
Pupils draw a pair of axes in one quadrant, with equal scales and integer labels. They read, write and use pairs of coordinates, for example (2, 5), including using coordinateplotting ICT tools

Properties of Shapes

Statistics
Pupils understand and use a greater range of scales in their representations. Pupils begin to relate the graphical representation of data to recording change over time

Number

Year 3

Upper Key Stage 2

Year 5

Number

Number & Place Value
Pupils identify the place value in large whole numbers. They continue to use number in context, including measurement. Pupils extend and apply their understanding of the number system to the decimal numbers and fractions that they have met so far. They should recognise and describe linear number sequences, including those involving fractions and decimals, and find the termtoterm rule. They should recognise and describe linear number sequences (for example, 3, 3 1/2, 4, 4 1/2...), including those involving fractions and decimals, and find the termtoterm rule in words (for example, add 1/2).

Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 000 000 and determine the value of each digit
Play Activities 189Examples

Interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through zero
Examples

Round any number up to 1 000 000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 and 100 000
Examples

Read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1 000 000 and determine the value of each digit

Addition & Subtraction
Pupils practise using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (see Mathematics Appendix 1). They practise mental calculations with increasingly large numbers to aid fluency (for example, 12 462  2300 = 10 162)

Add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)
Play Activities 120Examples

Add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
Examples

Use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
Examples

Add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits, including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)

Multiplication & Division
Pupils practise and extend their use of the formal written methods of short multiplication and short division (see Mathematics Appendix 1). They apply all the multiplication tables and related division facts frequently, commit them to memory and use them confidently to make larger calculations. They use and understand the terms factor, multiple and prime, square and cube numbers. Pupils interpret noninteger answers to division by expressing results in different ways according to the context, including with remainders, as fractions, as decimals or by rounding (for example, 98 Ã· 4 = 98/4= 24 r 2 = 24 = 24.5 ? 25). Pupils use multiplication and division as inverses to support the introduction of ratio in year 6, for example, by multiplying and dividing by powers of 10 in scale drawings or by multiplying and dividing by powers of a 1000 in converting between units such as kilometres and metres. Distributivity can be expressed as a(b + c) = ab + ac. They understand the terms factor, multiple and prime, square and cube numbers and use them to construct equivalence statements (for example, 4 x 35 = 2 x 2 x 35; 3 x 270 = 3 x 3 x 9 x 10 = 92 x 10). Pupils use and explain the equals sign to indicate equivalence, including in missing number problems (for example, 13 + 24 = 12 + 25; 33 = 5 x )

Identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers
Examples

Solve problems involving multiplication and division where larger numbers are used by decomposing them into their factors
Examples

Know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (nonprime) numbers
Examples

Establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19
Examples

Multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one or twodigit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for twodigit numbers
Examples

Multiply and divide numbers mentally drawing upon known facts
Examples

Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a onedigit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
Play Activities 133Examples

Multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1000
Examples

Recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared (2) and cubed (3)
Examples

Solve problems involving multiplication and division including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes
Examples

Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign
Examples

Solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates
Examples

Identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers

Fractions (Including Decimals & Percentages)
Pupils should be taught throughout that percentages, decimals and fractions are different ways of expressing proportions. They extend their knowledge of fractions to thousandths and connect to decimals and measures. Pupils connect equivalent fractions > 1 that simplify to integers with division and other fractions > 1 to division with remainders, using the number line and other models, and hence move from these to improper and mixed fractions. Pupils connect multiplication by a fraction to using fractions as operators (fractions of), and to division, building on work from previous years. This relates to scaling by simple fractions, including fractions > 1. Pupils practise adding and subtracting fractions to become fluent through a variety of increasingly complex problems. They extend their understanding of adding and subtracting fractions to calculations that exceed 1 as a mixed number. Pupils continue to practise counting forwards and backwards in simple fractions. Pupils continue to develop their understanding of fractions as numbers, measures and operators by finding fractions of numbers and quantities. Pupils extend counting from year 4, using decimals and fractions including bridging zero, for example on a number line. Pupils say, read and write decimal fractions and related tenths, hundredths and thousandths accurately and are confident in checking the reasonableness of their answers to problems. They mentally add and subtract tenths, and onedigit whole numbers and tenths. They practise adding and subtracting decimals, including a mix of whole numbers and decimals, decimals with different numbers of decimal places, and complements of 1 (for example, 0.83 + 0.17 = 1). Pupils should go beyond the measurement and money models of decimals, for example, by solving puzzles involving decimals. Pupils should make connections between percentages, fractions and decimals (for example, 100% represents a whole quantity and 1% is 1/100, 50% is 50/100, 25% is 25/100) and relate this to finding 'fractions of'.

Compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number
Examples

Identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths
Play Activities 140Examples

Recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number [for example, 2/5 + 4/5 = 6/5 = 1 1/5]
Examples

Add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and denominators that are multiples of the same number
Examples

Read and write decimal numbers as fractions [for example, 0.71 = 71/100]
Examples

Round decimals with two decimal places to the nearest whole number and to one decimal place
Examples

Read, write, order and compare numbers with up to three decimal places
Examples

Solve problems involving number up to three decimal places
Play Activities 431Examples

Recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to 'number of parts per hundred', and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal
Examples

Solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, 2/5, 4/5 and those fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25
Examples

Compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number

Number & Place Value

Measurement
Pupils use their knowledge of place value and multiplication and division to convert between standard units. Pupils calculate the perimeter of rectangles and related composite shapes, including using the relations of perimeter or area to find unknown lengths. Missing measures questions such as these can be expressed algebraically, for example 4 + 2b = 20 for a rectangle of sides 2 cm and b cm and perimeter of 20cm. Pupils calculate the area from scale drawings using given measurements. Pupils use all four operations in problems involving time and money, including conversions (for example, days to weeks, expressing the answer as weeks and days).

Convert between different units of metric measure (for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre)
Examples

Measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres
Examples

Calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), and including using standard units, square centimetres (cm2) and square metres (m2) and estimate the area of irregular shapes
Examples

Estimate volume [for example, using 1 cm3 blocks to build cuboids (including cubes)] and capacity [for example, using water]
Examples

Solve problems involving converting between units of time
Examples

Use all four operations to solve problems involving measure [for example, length, mass, volume, money] using decimal notation, including scaling
Play Activities 166Examples

Convert between different units of metric measure (for example, kilometre and metre; centimetre and metre; centimetre and millimetre; gram and kilogram; litre and millilitre)

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils become accurate in drawing lines with a ruler to the nearest millimetre, and measuring with a protractor. They use conventional markings for parallel lines and right angles. Pupils use the term diagonal and make conjectures about the angles formed between sides, and between diagonals and parallel sides, and other properties of quadrilaterals, for example using dynamic geometry ICT tools. Pupils use angle sum facts and other properties to make deductions about missing angles and relate these to missing number problems

Identify 3D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2D representations
Examples

Know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles
Examples
 Identify:

Use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles
Examples

Identify 3D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2D representations

Position & Direction
Pupils recognise and use reflection and translation in a variety of diagrams, including continuing to use a 2D grid and coordinates in the first quadrant. Reflection should be in lines that are parallel to the axes

Properties of Shapes

Statistics
Pupils connect their work on coordinates and scales to their interpretation of time graphs. They begin to decide which representations of data are most appropriate and why

Number

Year 6

Number

Number & Place Value
Pupils use the whole number system, including saying, reading and writing numbers accurately

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & Division
Pupils practise addition, subtraction, multiplication and division for larger numbers, using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction, short and long multiplication, and short and long division (see Mathematics Appendix 1). They undertake mental calculations with increasingly large numbers and more complex calculations. Pupils continue to use all the multiplication tables to calculate mathematical statements in order to maintain their fluency. Pupils round answers to a specified degree of accuracy, for example, to the nearest 10, 20, 50 etc., but not to a specified number of significant figures. Pupils explore the order of operations using brackets; for example, 2 + 1 x 3 = 5 and (2 + 1) x 3 = 9. Common factors can be related to finding equivalent fractions

Multiply multidigit numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication
Examples

Divide numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit number using the formal written method of short division where appropriate, interpreting remainders according to the context
Examples

Perform mental calculations, including with mixed operations and large numbers
Examples

Identify common factors, common multiples and prime numbers
Examples

Use their knowledge of the order of operations to carry out calculations involving the four operations
Examples

Solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Play Activities 241Examples

Use estimation to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, an appropriate degree of accuracy
Examples

Multiply multidigit numbers up to 4 digits by a twodigit whole number using the formal written method of long multiplication

Fractions (Including Decimals & Percentages)
Pupils should practise, use and understand the addition and subtraction of fractions with different denominators by identifying equivalent fractions with the same denominator. They should start with fractions where the denominator of one fraction is a multiple of the other (for example, 1/2 + 1/8 = 5/8) and progress to varied and increasingly complex problems. Pupils should use a variety of images to support their understanding of multiplication with fractions. This follows earlier work about fractions as operators (fractions of), as numbers, and as equal parts of objects, for example as parts of a rectangle. Pupils use their understanding of the relationship between unit fractions and division to work backwards by multiplying a quantity that represents a unit fraction to find the whole quantity (for example, if 1/4 of a length is 36cm, then the whole length is 36 x 4 = 144cm). They practise calculations with simple fractions and decimal fraction equivalents to aid fluency, including listing equivalent fractions to identify fractions with common denominators. Pupils can explore and make conjectures about converting a simple fraction to a decimal fraction (for example, 3 Ã· 8 = 0.375). For simple fractions with recurring decimal equivalents, pupils learn about rounding the decimal to three decimal places, or other appropriate approximations depending on the context. Pupils multiply and divide numbers with up to two decimal places by onedigit and twodigit whole numbers. Pupils multiply decimals by whole numbers, starting with the simplest cases, such as 0.4 x 2 = 0.8, and in practical contexts, such as measures and money. Pupils are introduced to the division of decimal numbers by onedigit whole number, initially, in practical contexts involving measures and money. They recognise division calculations as the inverse of multiplication. Pupils also develop their skills of rounding and estimating as a means of predicting and checking the order of magnitude of their answers to decimal calculations. This includes rounding answers to a specified degree of accuracy and checking the reasonableness of their answers.

Compare and order fractions, including fractions >> 1
Examples

Add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions
Examples

Multiply simple pairs of proper fractions, writing the answer in its simplest form [for example, 1/4 x 1/2 = 1/8]
Examples

Associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents [for example, 0.375] for a simple fraction [for example, 3/8]
Examples

Identify the value of each digit in numbers given to three decimal places and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1000 giving answers up to three decimal places
Examples

Multiply onedigit numbers with up to two decimal places by whole numbers
Examples

Solve problems which require answers to be rounded to specified degrees of accuracy
Examples

Recall and use equivalences between simple fractions, decimals and percentages, including in different contexts
Examples

Compare and order fractions, including fractions >> 1

Number & Place Value

Ratio & Proportion
Pupils recognise proportionality in contexts when the relations between quantities are in the same ratio (for example, similar shapes and recipes). Pupils link percentages or 360degrees to calculating angles of pie charts. Pupils should consolidate their understanding of ratio when comparing quantities, sizes and scale drawings by solving a variety of problems. They might use the notation a:b to record their work. Pupils solve problems involving unequal quantities, for example, 'for every egg you need three spoonfuls of flour', '3/5 of the class are boys'. These problems are the foundation for later formal approaches to ratio and proportion

Solve problems involving the relative sizes of two quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts
Examples

Solve problems involving the calculation of percentages [for example, of measures, and such as 15% of 360] and the use of percentages for comparison
Examples

Solve problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples
Examples

Solve problems involving the relative sizes of two quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts

Algebra
Pupils should be introduced to the use of symbols and letters to represent variables and unknowns in mathematical situations that they already understand, such as: missing numbers, lengths, coordinates and angles, formulae in mathematics and science, equivalent expressions (for example, a + b = b + a), generalisations of number patterns, number puzzles (for example, what two numbers can add up to)

Use simple formulae
Examples

Generate and describe linear number sequences
Examples

Express missing number problems algebraically
Examples

Use simple formulae

Measurement
Pupils connect conversion (for example, from kilometres to miles) to a graphical representation as preparation for understanding linear/proportional graphs. They know approximate conversions and are able to tell if an answer is sensible. Using the number line, pupils use, add and subtract positive and negative integers for measures such as temperature. They relate the area of rectangles to parallelograms and triangles, for example, by dissection, and calculate their areas, understanding and using the formulae (in words or symbols) to do this. Pupils could be introduced to compound units for speed, such as miles per hour, and apply their knowledge in science or other subjects as appropriate.

Solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to three decimal places where appropriate
Examples

Use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa, using decimal notation to up to three decimal places
Examples

Recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa
Examples

Recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes
Examples

Calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles
Examples

Calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres (cm3) and cubic metres (m3), and extending to other units [for example, mm3 and km3]
Examples

Solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, using decimal notation up to three decimal places where appropriate

Geometry

Properties of Shapes
Pupils draw shapes and nets accurately, using measuring tools and conventional markings and labels for lines and angles. Pupils describe the properties of shapes and explain how unknown angles and lengths can be derived from known measurements. These relationships might be expressed algebraically for example, d = 2 x r; a = 180  (b + c)

Recognise, describe and build simple 3D shapes, including making nets
Examples

Compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons
Examples

Recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles
Examples

Recognise, describe and build simple 3D shapes, including making nets

Position & Direction
Pupils draw and label a pair of axes in all four quadrants with equal scaling. This extends their knowledge of one quadrant to all four quadrants, including the use of negative numbers. Pupils draw and label rectangles (including squares), parallelograms and rhombuses, specified by coordinates in the four quadrants, predicting missing coordinates using the properties of shapes. These might be expressed algebraically for example, translating vertex (a, b) to (a  2, b + 3); (a, b) and (a + d, b + d) being opposite vertices of a square of side d.

Properties of Shapes

Statistics
Pupils connect their work on angles, fractions and percentages to the interpretation of pie charts. Pupils both encounter and draw graphs relating two variables, arising from their own enquiry and in other subjects. They should connect conversion from kilometres to miles in measurement to its graphical representation. Pupils know when it is appropriate to find the mean of a data set

Number

Year 5

Key Stage 3
 Working Mathematically

Subject Content

Number

Order positive and negative integers, decimals and fractions; use the number line as a model for ordering of the real numbers; use the symbols =, ?, <, >, ?, ?
Examples

Use the concepts and vocabulary of prime numbers, factors (or divisors), multiples, common factors, common multiples, highest common factor, lowest common multiple, prime factorisation, including using product notation and the unique factorisation propert
Examples

Use the four operations, including formal written methods, applied to integers, decimals, proper and improper fractions, and mixed numbers, all both positive and negative
Play Activities 232Examples

Use conventional notation for the priority of operations, including brackets, powers, roots and reciprocals
Examples

Use integer powers and associated real roots (square, cube and higher), recognise powers of 2, 3, 4, 5 and distinguish between exact representations of roots and their decimal approximations
Examples

Interpret and compare numbers in standard form A x 10n 1?A< 10, where n is a positive or negative integer or zero
Examples

Work interchangeably with terminating decimals and their corresponding fractions (such as 3.5 and 7/2 or 0.375 and 3/8)
Examples

Define percentage as 'number of parts per hundred', interpret percentages and percentage changes as a fraction or a decimal, interpret these multiplicatively, express one quantity as a percentage of another, compare two quantities using percentages, and w
Examples

Interpret fractions and percentages as operators
Play Activities 121Examples

Round numbers and measures to an appropriate degree of accuracy [for example, to a number of decimal places or significant figures]
Examples

Use approximation through rounding to estimate answers and calculate possible resulting errors expressed using inequality notation a< x?b
Examples

Order positive and negative integers, decimals and fractions; use the number line as a model for ordering of the real numbers; use the symbols =, ?, <, >, ?, ?

Algebra

Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

Ab in place of a x b
Examples

3y in place of y + y + y and 3 x y
Examples

A2 in place of a x a, a3 in place of a x a x a; a2b in place of a x a x b
Examples

A/b in place of a ÷ b
Examples

Brackets
Examples

Ab in place of a x b

Substitute numerical values into formulae and expressions, including scientific formulae
Examples

Understand and use the concepts and vocabulary of expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
Examples

Simplify and manipulate algebraic expressions to maintain equivalence by:

Collecting like terms
Examples

Multiplying a single term over a bracket
Examples

Taking out common factors
Examples

Expanding products of two or more binomials
Examples

Collecting like terms

Understand and use standard mathematical formulae; rearrange formulae to change the subject
Examples

Model situations or procedures by translating them into algebraic expressions or formulae and by using graphs
Examples

Use algebraic methods to solve linear equations in one variable (including all forms that require rearrangement)
Examples

Recognise, sketch and produce graphs of linear and quadratic functions of one variable with appropriate scaling, using equations in x and y and the Cartesian plane
Examples

Interpret mathematical relationships both algebraically and graphically
Examples

Reduce a given linear equation in two variables to the standard form y = mx + c; calculate and interpret gradients and intercepts of graphs of such linear equations numerically, graphically and algebraically
Examples

Use linear and quadratic graphs to estimate values of y for given values of x and vice versa and to find approximate solutions of simultaneous linear equations
Examples

Find approximate solutions to contextual problems from given graphs of a variety of functions, including piecewise linear, exponential and reciprocal graphs
Examples

Generate terms of a sequence from either a termtoterm or a positiontoterm rule
Examples

Recognise arithmetic sequences and find the nth term
Examples

Recognise geometric sequences and appreciate other sequences that arise
Examples

Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

Ratio, Proportion & Change

Use scale factors, scale diagrams and maps
Examples

Express one quantity as a fraction of another, where the fraction is less than 1 and greater than 1
Examples

Use ratio notation, including reduction to simplest form
Examples

Divide a given quantity into two parts in a given part:part or part:whole ratio; express the division of a quantity into two parts as a ratio
Play Activities 110Examples

Understand that a multiplicative relationship between two quantities can be expressed as a ratio or a fraction
Examples

Relate the language of ratios and the associated calculations to the arithmetic of fractions and to linear functions
Examples

Solve problems involving percentage change, including: percentage increase, decrease and original value problems and simple interest in financial mathematics
Examples

Solve problems involving direct and inverse proportion, including graphical and algebraic representations
Examples

Use compound units such as speed, unit pricing and density to solve problems
Examples

Use scale factors, scale diagrams and maps

Geometry & Measures

Derive and apply formulae to calculate and solve problems involving: perimeter and area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezia, volume of cuboids (including cubes) and other prisms (including cylinders)
Examples

Calculate and solve problems involving: perimeters of 2D shapes (including circles), areas of circles and composite shapes
Examples

Describe, sketch and draw using conventional terms and notations: points, lines, parallel lines, perpendicular lines, right angles, regular polygons, and other polygons that are reflectively and rotationally symmetric
Examples

Use the standard conventions for labelling the sides and angles of triangle ABC, and know and use the criteria for congruence of triangles
Examples

Derive and illustrate properties of triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and other plane figures [for example, equal lengths and angles] using appropriate language and technologies
Examples

Identify properties of, and describe the results of, translations, rotations and reflections applied to given figures
Examples

Apply the properties of angles at a point, angles at a point on a straight line, vertically opposite angles
Examples

Understand and use the relationship between parallel lines and alternate and corresponding angles
Examples

Derive and use the sum of angles in a triangle and use it to deduce the angle sum in any polygon, and to derive properties of regular polygons
Examples

Apply angle facts, triangle congruence, similarity and properties of quadrilaterals to derive results about angles and sides, including Pythagoras' Theorem, and use known results to obtain simple proofs
Examples

Use Pythagoras' Theorem and trigonometric ratios in similar triangles to solve problems involving rightangled triangles
Examples

Use the properties of faces, surfaces, edges and vertices of cubes, cuboids, prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres to solve problems in 3D
Examples

Interpret mathematical relationships both algebraically and geometrically
Examples

Derive and apply formulae to calculate and solve problems involving: perimeter and area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezia, volume of cuboids (including cubes) and other prisms (including cylinders)

Probability

Record, describe and analyse the frequency of outcomes of simple probability experiments involving randomness, fairness, equally and unequally likely outcomes, using appropriate language and the 01 probability scale
Play Activities 116Examples

Understand that the probabilities of all possible outcomes sum to 1
Examples

Record, describe and analyse the frequency of outcomes of simple probability experiments involving randomness, fairness, equally and unequally likely outcomes, using appropriate language and the 01 probability scale

Statistics

Describe, interpret and compare observed distributions of a single variable through: appropriate graphical representation involving discrete, continuous and grouped data; and appropriate measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median) and spread (range,
Examples

Construct and interpret appropriate tables, charts, and diagrams, including frequency tables, bar charts, pie charts, and pictograms for categorical data, and vertical line (or bar) charts for ungrouped and grouped numerical data
Examples

Describe simple mathematical relationships between two variables (bivariate data) in observational and experimental contexts and illustrate using scatter graphs
Examples

Describe, interpret and compare observed distributions of a single variable through: appropriate graphical representation involving discrete, continuous and grouped data; and appropriate measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median) and spread (range,

Number

Key Stage 1

English

Key Stage 1

Year 1

Reading

Word Reading
Pupils should revise and consolidate the GPCs and the common exception words taught in Reception. As soon as they can read words comprising the year 1 GPCs accurately and speedily, they should move on to the year 2 programme of study for word reading. The number, order and choice of exception words taught will vary according to the phonics programme being used. Ensuring that pupils are aware of the GPCs they contain, however unusual these are, supports spelling later. Young readers encounter words that they have not seen before much more frequently than experienced readers do, and they may not know the meaning of some of these. Practice at reading such words by sounding and blending can provide opportunities not only for pupils to develop confidence in their decoding skills, but also for teachers to explain the meaning and thus develop pupils' vocabulary. Pupils should be taught how to read words with suffixes by being helped to build on the root words that they can read already. Pupils' reading and rereading of books that are closely matched to their developing phonic knowledge and knowledge of common exception words supports their fluency, as well as increasing their confidence in their reading skills. Fluent word reading greatly assists comprehension, especially when pupils come to read longer books.

Comprehension
Pupils should have extensive experience of listening to, sharing and discussing a wide range of highquality books with the teacher, other adults and each other to engender a love of reading at the same time as they are reading independently. Pupils' vocabulary should be developed when they listen to books read aloud and when they discuss what they have heard. Such vocabulary can also feed into their writing. Knowing the meaning of more words increases pupils' chances of understanding when they read by themselves. The meaning of some new words should be introduced to pupils before they start to read on their own, so that these unknown words do not hold up their comprehension. However, once pupils have already decoded words successfully, the meaning of those that are new to them can be discussed with them, so contributing to developing their early skills of inference. By listening frequently to stories, poems and nonfiction that they cannot yet read for themselves, pupils begin to understand how written language can be structured in order, for example, to build surprise in narratives or to present facts in nonfiction. Listening to and discussing information books and other nonfiction establishes the foundations for their learning in other subjects. Pupils should be shown some of the processes for finding out information. Through listening, pupils also start to learn how language sounds and increase their vocabulary and awareness of grammatical structures. In due course, they will be able to draw on such grammar in their own writing. Rules for effective discussions should be agreed with and demonstrated for pupils. They should help to develop and evaluate them, with the expectation that everyone takes part. Pupils should be helped to consider the opinions of others. Roleplay can help pupils to identify with and explore characters and to try out the language they have listened to.

Word Reading

Writing

Transcription

Spelling
Reading should be taught alongside spelling, so that pupils understand that they can read back words they have spelt. Pupils should be shown how to segment spoken words into individual phonemes and then how to represent the phonemes by the appropriate grapheme(s). It is important to recognise that phonemegrapheme correspondences (which underpin spelling) are more variable than graphemephoneme correspondences (which underpin reading). For this reason, pupils need to do much more wordspecific rehearsal for spelling than for reading. At this stage pupils will be spelling some words in a phonically plausible way, even if sometimes incorrectly. Misspellings of words that pupils have been taught to spell should be corrected; other misspelt words should be used to teach pupils about alternative ways of representing those sounds. Writing simple dictated sentences that include words taught so far gives pupils opportunities to apply and practise their spelling

Spelling

Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation
Pupils should be taught to recognise sentence boundaries in spoken sentences and to use the vocabulary listed in English Appendix 2 ('Terminology for pupils') when their writing is discussed. Pupils should begin to use some of the distinctive features of Standard English in their writing. 'Standard English' is defined in the Glossary.

Transcription

Spelling

Revision of Reception Work

All letters of the alphabet and the sounds which they most commonly represent
Play Activities 151Examples

Consonant digraphs which have been taught and the sounds which they represent
Examples

The process of segmenting spoken words into sounds before choosing graphemes to represent the sounds
Examples

The sounds /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ spelt ff, ll, ss, zz and ck
The /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ sounds are usually spelt as ff, ll, ss, zz and ck if they come straight after a single vowel letter in short words. Exceptions: if, pal, us, bus, yes. Example words: off, well, miss, buzz, backExamples

Adding s and es to words (plural of nouns and the third person singular of verbs)
If the ending sounds like /s/ or /z/, it is spelt as s. If the ending sounds like /ɪz/ and forms an extra syllable or 'beat' in the word, it is spelt as es. Example words: cats, dogs, spends, rocks, thanks, catchesExamples

Adding er and est to adjectives where no change is needed to the root word
As with verbs (see above), if the adjective ends in two consonant letters (the same or different), the ending is simply added on. Example words: grander, grandest, fresher, freshest, quicker, quickestExamples

All letters of the alphabet and the sounds which they most commonly represent

Vowel Digraphs & Trigraphs

Ai, oi
The digraphs ai and oi are virtually never used at the end of English words. Example words: rain, wait, train, paid, afraid, oil, join, coin, point, soilExamples

Ay, oy
Ay and oy are used for those sounds at the end of words and at the end of syllables. Example words: day, play, say, way, stay, boy, toy, enjoy, annoyExamples

Ae
Example words: made, came, same, take, safeExamples

Ie
Example words: five, ride, like, time, sideExamples

Oe
Example words: home, those, woke, hope, holeExamples

Ee
Example words: see, tree, green, meet, weekExamples

Ea (/i:/)
Example words: sea, dream, meat, each, read (present tense)Examples

Er (/ə/)
Example words: (unstressed schwa sound): better, under, summer, winter, sisterExamples

Oo (/u:/)
Very few words end with the letters oo, although the few that do are often words that primary children in year 1 will encounter, for example, zoo. Example words: food, pool, moon, zoo, soonExamples

Oo (/ʊ/)
Example words: book, took, foot, wood, goodExamples

Oa
The digraph oa is very rare at the end of an English word. Example words: boat, coat, road, coach, goalExamples

Ou
The only common English word ending in ou is you. Example words: out, about, mouth, around, soundExamples

Ow (/aʊ/), ow (/əʊ/), ue, ew
Both the /u:/ and /ju:/ ('oo' and 'yoo') sounds can be spelt as ue, ue and ew. If words end in the /oo/ sound, ue and ew are more common spellings than oo. Example words: now, how, brown, down, town, own, blow, snow, grow, show, blue, clue, true, rescue, Tuesday, new, few, grew, flew, drew, threwExamples

Air
Example words: air, fair, pair, hair, chairExamples

Ear
Example words: dear, hear, beard, near, yearExamples

Words ending y (/i:/ or /ɪ/)
Example words: very, happy, funny, party, familyExamples

New consonant spellings ph and wh
The /f/ sound is not usually spelt as ph in short everyday words (e.g. fat, fill, fun). Example words: dolphin, alphabet, phonics, elephant, when, where, which, wheel, whileExamples

Compound words
Compound words are two words joined together. Each part of the longer word is spelt as it would be if it were on its own. Example words: football, playground, farmyard, bedroom, blackberryExamples

Ai, oi

Revision of Reception Work

Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

Sentence
How words can combine to make sentences Joining words and joining clauses using andPlay Activities 186Examples

Sentence

Reading

Year 2

Reading

Word Reading
Pupils should revise and consolidate the GPCs and the common exception words taught in year 1. The exception words taught will vary slightly, depending on the phonics programme being used. As soon as pupils can read words comprising the year 2 GPCs accurately and speedily, they should move on to the years 3 and 4 programme of study for word reading. When pupils are taught how to read longer words, they should be shown syllable boundaries and how to read each syllable separately before they combine them to read the word. Pupils should be taught how to read suffixes by building on the root words that they have already learnt. The whole suffix should be taught as well as the letters that make it up. Pupils who are still at the early stages of learning to read should have ample practice in reading books that are closely matched to their developing phonic knowledge and knowledge of common exception words. As soon as the decoding of most regular words and common exception words is embedded fully, the range of books that pupils can read independently will expand rapidly. Pupils should have opportunities to exercise choice in selecting books and be taught how to do so.

Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent
Play Activities 404Examples

Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes
Examples

Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above
Examples

Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered
Examples

Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent

Comprehension
Pupils should be encouraged to read all the words in a sentence and to do this accurately, so that their understanding of what they read is not hindered by imprecise decoding (for example, by reading 'place' instead of 'palace'). Pupils should monitor what they read, checking that the word they have decoded fits in with what else they have read and makes sense in the context of what they already know about the topic. The meaning of new words should be explained to pupils within the context of what they are reading, and they should be encouraged to use morphology (such as prefixes) to work out unknown words. Pupils should learn about cause and effect in both narrative and nonfiction (for example, what has prompted a character's behaviour in a story; why certain dates are commemorated annually). 'Thinking aloud' when reading to pupils may help them to understand what skilled readers do. Deliberate steps should be taken to increase pupils' vocabulary and their awareness of grammar so that they continue to understand the differences between spoken and written language. Discussion should be demonstrated to pupils. They should be guided to participate in it and they should be helped to consider the opinions of others. They should receive feedback on their discussions. Roleplay and other drama techniques can help pupils to identify with and explore characters. In these ways, they extend their understanding of what they read and have opportunities to try out the language they have listened to.
 Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:
 Understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:

Explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves
Examples

Word Reading

Writing

Transcription

Spelling
In year 2, pupils move towards more wordspecific knowledge of spelling, including homophones. The process of spelling should be emphasised: that is, that spelling involves segmenting spoken words into phonemes and then representing all the phonemes by graphemes in the right order. Pupils should do this both for singlesyllable and multisyllabic words. At this stage children's spelling should be phonically plausible, even if not always correct. Misspellings of words that pupils have been taught to spell should be corrected; other misspelt words can be used as an opportunity to teach pupils about alternative ways of representing those sounds. Pupils should be encouraged to apply their knowledge of suffixes from their word reading to their spelling. They should also draw from and apply their growing knowledge of word and spelling structure, as well as their knowledge of root words.

Spell by:

Segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly
Play Activities 301Examples

Learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones
Play Activities 107Examples

Learning to spell common exception words
Examples

Distinguishing between homophones and nearhomophones
Examples

Segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly

Add suffixes to spell longer words, including ment, ness, ful, less, ly
Examples

Apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1
Examples

Spell by:

Spelling

Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation
The terms for discussing language should be embedded for pupils in the course of discussing their writing with them. Their attention should be drawn to the technical terms they need to learn.
 Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

Learn how to use:

Sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command
Examples

Expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]
Examples

The present and past tenses correctly and consistently including the progressive form
Examples

Subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and coordination (using or, and, or but)
Examples

Sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command

Transcription

Spelling

New Work for Year 2

The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and y
The letter j is never used for the /dʒ/ sound at the end of English words. At the end of a word, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt dge straight after the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ sounds (sometimes called 'short' vowels). Example words: badge, edge, bridge, dodge, fudge After all other sounds, whether vowels or consonants, the /dʒ/ sound is spelt as ge at the end of a word. Example words: age, huge, change, charge, bulge, village In other positions in words, the /dʒ/ sound is often (but not always) spelt as g before e, i, and y. The /dʒ/ sound is always spelt as j before a, o and u. Example words: gem, giant, magic, giraffe, energy, jacket, jar, jog, join, adjustExamples

The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y
Example words: race, ice, cell, city, fancyExamples

The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words
The 'k' and 'g' at the beginning of these words was sounded hundreds of years ago. Example words: knock, know, knee, gnat, gnawExamples

The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words
This spelling probably also reflects an old pronunciation. Example words: write, written, wrote, wrong, wrapExamples

The /aɪ/ sound spelt y at the end of words
This is by far the most common spelling for this sound at the end of words. Example words: cry, fly, dry, try, reply, JulyExamples

Adding es to nouns and verbs ending in y
The y is changed to i before es is added. Example words: flies, tries, replies, copies, babies, carriesExamples

Adding the endings ing, ed, er, est and y to words ending in e with a consonant before it
The e at the end of the root word is dropped before ing, ed, er, est, y or any other suffix beginning with a vowel letter is added. Exception: being. Example words: hiking, hiked, hiker, nicer, nicest, shinyExamples

Adding ing, ed, er, est and y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter
The last consonant letter of the root word is doubled to keep the /æ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɒ/ and /ʌ/ sound (i.e. to keep the vowel 'short'). Exception: The letter 'x' is never doubled: mixing, mixed, boxer, sixes. Example words: patting, patted, humming, hummed, dropping, dropped, sadder, saddest, fatter, fattest, runner, runnyExamples

The /ɔ:/ sound spelt a before l and ll
The /ɔ:/ sound ('or') is usually spelt as a before l and ll. Example words: all, ball, call, walk, talk, alwaysExamples

The /i:/ sound spelt ey
The plural of these words is formed by the addition of s (donkeys, monkeys, etc.). Example words: key, donkey, monkey, chimney, valleyExamples

Contractions
In contractions, the apostrophe shows where a letter or letters would be if the words were written in full (e.g. can't  cannot). It's means it is (e.g. It's raining) or sometimes it has (e.g. It's been raining), but it's is never used for the possessive. Example words: can't, didn't, hasn't, couldn't, it's, I'llExamples

Homophones and nearhomophones
It is important to know the difference in meaning between homophones. Example words: there/their/they're, here/hear, quite/quiet, see/sea, bare/bear, one/won, sun/son, to/too/two, be/bee, blue/blew, night/knightExamples

The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and y

New Work for Year 2

Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

Word
Formation of nouns using suffixes such as ness, er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman] Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as ful, less (A fuller list of suffixes can be found on page 54 in the year 2 spelling section in English Appendix 1) Use of the suffixes er, est in adjectives and the use of ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbsExamples

Sentence
Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and coordination (using or, and, but) Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon] How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or commandExamples

Punctuation
Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences Commas to separate items in a list Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl's name]Examples

Terminology for Pupils
Noun, noun phrase Statement, question, exclamation, command Compound, suffix Adjective, adverb, verb Tense (past, present) Apostrophe, commaExamples

Word

Reading

Year 1

Lower Key Stage 2

Years 3 & 4

Reading

Word Reading
At this stage, teaching comprehension should be taking precedence over teaching word reading directly. Any focus on word reading should support the development of vocabulary. When pupils are taught to read longer words, they should be supported to test out different pronunciations. They will attempt to match what they decode to words they may have already heard but may not have seen in print [for example, in reading 'technical', the pronunciation /tɛtʃnɪkəl/ ('tetchnical') might not sound familiar, but /tɛknɪkəl/ ('teknical') should].

Comprehension
The focus should continue to be on pupils' comprehension as a primary element in reading. The knowledge and skills that pupils need in order to comprehend are very similar at different ages. This is why the programmes of study for comprehension in years 3 and 4 and years 5 and 6 are similar: the complexity of the writing increases the level of challenge. Pupils should be taught to recognise themes in what they read, such as the triumph of good over evil or the use of magical devices in fairy stories and folk tales. They should also learn the conventions of different types of writing (for example, the greeting in letters, a diary written in the first person or the use of presentational devices such as numbering and headings in instructions). Pupils should be taught to use the skills they have learnt earlier and continue to apply these skills to read for different reasons, including for pleasure, or to find out information and the meaning of new words. Pupils should continue to have opportunities to listen frequently to stories, poems, nonfiction and other writing, including whole books and not just extracts, so that they build on what was taught previously. In this way, they also meet books and authors that they might not choose themselves. Pupils should also have opportunities to exercise choice in selecting books and be taught how to do so, with teachers making use of any library services and expertise to support this. Reading, rereading, and rehearsing poems and plays for presentation and performance give pupils opportunities to discuss language, including vocabulary, extending their interest in the meaning and origin of words. Pupils should be encouraged to use drama approaches to understand how to perform plays and poems to support their understanding of the meaning. These activities also provide them with an incentive to find out what expression is required, so feeding into comprehension. In using nonfiction, pupils should know what information they need to look for before they begin and be clear about the task. They should be shown how to use contents pages and indexes to locate information. Pupils should have guidance about the kinds of explanations and questions that are expected from them. They should help to develop, agree on, and evaluate rules for effective discussion. The expectation should be that all pupils take part.

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

Reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
Examples

Increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally
Examples

Identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books
Examples

Recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]
Examples

Reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes

Understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:

Checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context
Examples

Drawing inferences such as inferring characters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
Play Activities 173Examples

Predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
Examples

Identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these
Examples

Identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning
Examples

Checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context

Retrieve and record information from nonfiction
Examples

Develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

Word Reading

Writing

Transcription

Spelling
Pupils should learn to spell new words correctly and have plenty of practice in spelling them. As in years 1 and 2, pupils should continue to be supported in understanding and applying the concepts of word structure (see English Appendix 2). Pupils need sufficient knowledge of spelling in order to use dictionaries efficiently.

Spelling

Composition
Pupils should continue to have opportunities to write for a range of real purposes and audiences as part of their work across the curriculum. These purposes and audiences should underpin the decisions about the form the writing should take, such as a narrative, an explanation or a description. Pupils should understand, through being shown these, the skills and processes that are essential for writing: that is, thinking aloud to explore and collect ideas, drafting, and rereading to check their meaning is clear, including doing so as the writing develops. Pupils should be taught to monitor whether their own writing makes sense in the same way that they monitor their reading, checking at different levels.

Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation
Grammar should be taught explicitly: pupils should be taught the terminology and concepts set out in English Appendix 2, and be able to apply them correctly to examples of real language, such as their own writing or books that they have read. At this stage, pupils should start to learn about some of the differences between Standard English and nonStandard English and begin to apply what they have learnt [for example, in writing dialogue for characters]

Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

Extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although
Examples

Using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense
Examples

Using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause
Examples

Extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although

Indicate grammatical and other features by:

Using and punctuating direct speech
Examples

Using and punctuating direct speech

Develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

Transcription

Spelling

New Work for Years 3 & 4
Teachers should continue to emphasise to pupils the relationships between sounds and letters, even when the relationships are unusual. Once root words are learnt in this way, longer words can be spelt correctly, if the rules and guidance for adding prefixes and suffixes are also known.

The suffix ly
The suffix ly is added to an adjective to form an adverb. The rules already learnt still apply. The suffix ly starts with a consonant letter, so it is added straight on to most root words. Example words: adly, completely, usually (usual + ly), finally (final + ly), comically (comical + ly) Exceptions: (1) If the root word ends in y with a consonant letter before it, the y is changed to i, but only if the root word has more than one syllable. Example words: happily, angrily (2) If the root word ends with le, the le is changed to ly. Example words: gently, simply, humbly, nobly (3) If the root word ends with ic, ally is added rather than just ly, except in the word publicly. Example words: basically, frantically, dramatically (4) The words truly, duly, wholly.Examples

Endings which sound like /ʒən/
If the ending sounds like /ʒən/, it is spelt as sion. Example words: division, invasion, confusion, decision, collision, televisionExamples

Endings which sound like /ʃən/, spelt tion, sion, ssion, cian
Strictly speaking, the suffixes are ion and ian. Clues about whether to put t, s, ss or c before these suffixes often come from the last letter or letters of the root word. tion is the most common spelling. It is used if the root word ends in t or te. Example words: invention, injection, action, hesitation, completion ssion is used if the root word ends in ss or mit.Example words: expression, discussion, confession, permission, admission sion is used if the root word ends in d or se.Example words: expansion, extension, comprehension, tension Exceptions: attend  attention, intend  intention. cian is used if the root word ends in c or cs. Example words: musician, electrician, magician, politician, mathematicianExamples

Words with the /eɪ/ sound spelt ei, eigh, or ey
Example words: vein, weigh, eight, neighbour, they, obeyExamples

Homophones and nearhomophones
Example words: accept/except, affect/effect, ball/bawl, berry/bury, brake/break, fair/fare, grate/great, groan/grown, here/hear, heel/heal/he'll, knot/not, mail/male, main/mane, meat/meet, medal/meddle, missed/mist, peace/piece, plain/plane, rain/rein/reign, scene/seen, weather/whether, whose/who'sExamples

The suffix ly

New Work for Years 3 & 4

Year 3  Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

Sentence
Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions [for example, when, before, after, while, so, because], adverbs [for example, then, next, soon, therefore], or prepositions [for example, before, after, during, in, because of]Examples

Punctuation
Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speechExamples

Terminology for Pupils
Preposition conjunction Word family, prefix Clause, subordinate clause Direct speech Consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter Inverted commas (or 'speech marks')Examples

Sentence

Year 4  Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation

Sentence
Noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair) Fronted adverbials [for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.]Examples

Terminology for Pupils
Determiner Pronoun, possessive pronoun AdverbialExamples

Sentence

Reading

Years 3 & 4

Upper Key Stage 2

Year 5 & 6

Reading

Word Reading
At this stage, there should be no need for further direct teaching of word reading skills for almost all pupils. If pupils are struggling or failing in this, the reasons for this should be investigated. It is imperative that pupils are taught to read during their last two years at primary school if they enter year 5 not being able to do so. Pupils should be encouraged to work out any unfamiliar word. They should focus on all the letters in a word so that they do not, for example, read 'invitation' for 'imitation' simply because they might be more familiar with the first word. Accurate reading of individual words, which might be key to the meaning of a sentence or paragraph, improves comprehension. When teachers are reading with or to pupils, attention should be paid to new vocabulary  both a word's meaning(s) and its correct pronunciation.

Comprehension
Even though pupils can now read independently, reading aloud to them should include whole books so that they meet books and authors that they might not choose to read themselves. The knowledge and skills that pupils need in order to comprehend are very similar at different ages. Pupils should continue to apply what they have already learnt to more complex writing. Pupils should be taught to recognise themes in what they read, such as loss or heroism. They should have opportunities to compare characters, consider different accounts of the same event and discuss viewpoints (both of authors and of fictional characters), within a text and across more than one text. They should continue to learn the conventions of different types of writing, such as the use of the first person in writing diaries and autobiographies. Pupils should be taught the technical and other terms needed for discussing what they hear and read, such as metaphor, simile, analogy, imagery, style and effect. In using reference books, pupils need to know what information they need to look for before they begin and need to understand the task. They should be shown how to use contents pages and indexes to locate information. The skills of information retrieval that are taught should be applied, for example, in reading history, geography and science textbooks, and in contexts where pupils are genuinely motivated to find out information, for example, reading information leaflets before a gallery or museum visit or reading a theatre programme or review. Teachers should consider making use of any library services and expertise to support this. Pupils should have guidance about and feedback on the quality of their explanations and contributions to discussions. Pupils should be shown how to compare characters, settings, themes and other aspects of what they read.
 Maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

Understand what they read by:

Checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
Examples

Drawing inferences such as inferring characters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
Examples

Predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
Examples

Summarising the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
Examples

Checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context

Word Reading

Reading

Year 5 & 6

Key Stage 1